In this research report, we present a study on Kyber Network. Kyber Network is a decentralized, on-chain liquidity protocol designed to make trading tokens simple, efficient, robust and secure. Kyber design allows any party to contribute to an aggregated pool of liquidity within each blockchain while providing a single endpoint for takers to execute trades using the best rates available. We envision a connected liquidity network that facilitates seamless, decentralized cross-chain token swaps across Kyber based networks on different chains. Kyber is a fully on-chain liquidity protocol that enables decentralized exchange of cryptocurrencies in any application. Liquidity providers (Reserves) are integrated into one single endpoint for takers and users. When a user requests a trade, the protocol will scan the entire network to find the reserve with the best price and take liquidity from that particular reserve.
DeFi applications all need access to good liquidity sources, which is a critical component to provide good services. Currently, decentralized liquidity is comprised of various sources including DEXes (Uniswap, OasisDEX, Bancor), decentralized funds and other financial apps. The more scattered the sources, the harder it becomes for anyone to either find the best rate for their trade or to even find enough liquidity for their need. Kyber is a blockchain-based liquidity protocol that aggregates liquidity from a wide range of reserves, powering instant and secure token exchange in any decentralized application. The protocol allows for a wide range of implementation possibilities for liquidity providers, allowing a wide range of entities to contribute liquidity, including end users, decentralized exchanges and other decentralized protocols. On the taker side, end users, cryptocurrency wallets, and smart contracts are able to perform instant and trustless token trades at the best rates available amongst the sources. The Kyber Network is project based on the Ethereum protocol that seeks to completely decentralize the exchange of crypto currencies and make exchange trustless by keeping everything on the blockchain. Through the Kyber Network, users should be able to instantly convert or exchange any crypto currency.
1.1 OVERVIEW ABOUT KYBER NETWORK PROTOCOL
The Kyber Network is a decentralized way to exchange ETH and different ERC20 tokens instantly — no waiting and no registration needed. Using this protocol, developers can build innovative payment flows and applications, including instant token swap services, ERC20 payments, and financial DApps — helping to build a world where any token is usable anywhere. Kyber’s fully on-chain design allows for full transparency and verifiability in the matching engine, as well as seamless composability with DApps, not all of which are possible with off-chain or hybrid approaches. The integration of a large variety of liquidity providers also makes Kyber uniquely capable of supporting sophisticated schemes and catering to the needs of DeFi DApps and financial institutions. Hence, many developers leverage Kyber’s liquidity pool to build innovative financial applications, and not surprisingly, Kyber is the most used DeFi protocol in the world. The Kyber Network is quite an established project that is trying to change the way we think of decentralised crypto currency exchange. The Kyber Network has seen very rapid development. After being announced in May 2017 the testnet for the Kyber Network went live in August 2017. An ICO followed in September 2017, with the company raising 200,000 ETH valued at $60 million in just one day. The live main net was released in February 2018 to whitelisted participants, and on March 19, 2018, the Kyber Network opened the main net as a public beta. Since then the network has seen increasing growth, with network volumes growing more than 500% in the first half of 2019. Although there was a modest decrease in August 2019 that can be attributed to the price of ETH dropping by 50%, impacting the overall total volumes being traded and processed globally. They are developing a decentralised exchange protocol that will allow developers to build payment flows and financial apps. This is indeed quite a competitive market as a number of other such protocols have been launched. In Brief - Kyber Network is a tool that allows anyone to swap tokens instantly without having to use exchanges. - It allows vendors to accept different types of cryptocurrency while still being paid in their preferred crypto of choice. - It’s built primarily for Ethereum, but any smart-contract based blockchain can incorporate it. At its core, Kyber is a decentralized way to exchange ETH and different ERC20 tokens instantly–no waiting and no registration needed. To do this Kyber uses a diverse set of liquidity pools, or pools of different crypto assets called “reserves” that any project can tap into or integrate with. A typical use case would be if a vendor allowed customers to pay in whatever currency they wish, but receive the payment in their preferred token. Another example would be for Dapp users. At present, if you are not a token holder of a certain Dapp you can’t use it. With Kyber, you could use your existing tokens, instantly swap them for the Dapp specific token and away you go. All this swapping happens directly on the Ethereum blockchain, meaning every transaction is completely transparent.
1.1.1 WHY BUILD THE KYBER NETWORK?
While crypto currencies were built to be decentralized, many of the exchanges for trading crypto currencies have become centralized affairs. This has led to security vulnerabilities, with many exchanges becoming the victims of hacking and theft. It has also led to increased fees and costs, and the centralized exchanges often come with slow transfer times as well. In some cases, wallets have been locked and users are unable to withdraw their coins. Decentralized exchanges have popped up recently to address the flaws in the centralized exchanges, but they have their own flaws, most notably a lack of liquidity, and often times high costs to modify trades in their on-chain order books. Some of the Integrations with Kyber Protocol The Kyber Network was formed to provide users with a decentralized exchange that keeps everything right on the blockchain, and uses a reserve system rather than an order book to provide high liquidity at all times. This will allow for the exchange and transfer of any cryptocurrency, even cross exchanges, and costs will be kept at a minimum as well. The Kyber Network has three guiding design philosophies since the start:
To be most useful the network needs to be platform-agnostic, which allows any protocol or application the ability to take advantage of the liquidity provided by the Kyber Network without any impact on innovation.
The network was designed to make real-world commerce and decentralized financial products not only possible but also feasible. It does this by allowing for instant token exchange across a wide range of tokens, and without any settlement risk.
The Kyber Network was created with ease of integration as a priority, which is why everything runs fully on-chain and fully transparent. Kyber is not only developer-friendly, but is also compatible with a wide variety of systems.
1.1.2 WHO INVENTED KYBER?
Kyber’s founders are Loi Luu, Victor Tran, Yaron Velner — CEO, CTO, and advisor to the Kyber Network.
1.1.3 WHAT DISTINGUISHES KYBER?
Kyber’s mission has always been to integrate with other protocols so they’ve focused on being developer-friendly by providing architecture to allow anyone to incorporate the technology onto any smart-contract powered blockchain. As a result, a variety of different dapps, vendors, and wallets use Kyber’s infrastructure including Set Protocol, bZx, InstaDApp, and Coinbase wallet. Besides, dapps, vendors, and wallets, Kyber also integrates with other exchanges such as Uniswap — sharing liquidity pools between the two protocols. A typical use case would be if a vendor allowed customers to pay in whatever currency they wish, but receive the payment in their preferred token. Another example would be for Dapp users. At present, if you are not a token holder of a certain Dapp you can’t use it. With Kyber, you could use your existing tokens, instantly swap them for the Dapp specific token and away you go. Limit orders on Kyber allow users to set a specific price in which they would like to exchange a token instead of accepting whatever price currently exists at the time of trading. However, unlike with other exchanges, users never lose custody of their crypto assets during limit orders on Kyber. The Kyber protocol works by using pools of crypto funds called “reserves”, which currently support over 70 different ERC20 tokens. Reserves are essentially smart contracts with a pool of funds. Different parties with different prices and levels of funding control all reserves. Instead of using order books to match buyers and sellers to return the best price, the Kyber protocol looks at all the reserves and returns the best price among the different reserves. Reserves make money on the “spread” or differences between the buying and selling prices. The Kyber wants any token holder to easily convert one token to another with a minimum of fuss.
1.2 KYBER PROTOCOL
The protocol smart contracts offer a single interface for the best available token exchange rates to be taken from an aggregated liquidity pool across diverse sources. ● Aggregated liquidity pool. The protocol aggregates various liquidity sources into one liquidity pool, making it easy for takers to find the best rates offered with one function call. ● Diverse sources of liquidity. The protocol allows different types of liquidity sources to be plugged into. Liquidity providers may employ different strategies and different implementations to contribute liquidity to the protocol. ● Permissionless. The protocol is designed to be permissionless where any developer can set up various types of reserves, and any end user can contribute liquidity. Implementations need to take into consideration various security vectors, such as reserve spamming, but can be mitigated through a staking mechanism. We can expect implementations to be permissioned initially until the maintainers are confident about these considerations. The core feature that the Kyber protocol facilitates is the token swap between taker and liquidity sources. The protocol aims to provide the following properties for token trades: ● Instant Settlement. Takers do not have to wait for their orders to be fulfilled, since trade matching and settlement occurs in a single blockchain transaction. This enables trades to be part of a series of actions happening in a single smart contract function. ● Atomicity. When takers make a trade request, their trade either gets fully executed, or is reverted. This “all or nothing” aspect means that takers are not exposed to the risk of partial trade execution. ● Public rate verification. Anyone can verify the rates that are being offered by reserves and have their trades instantly settled just by querying from the smart contracts. ● Ease of integration. Trustless and atomic token trades can be directly and easily integrated into other smart contracts, thereby enabling multiple trades to be performed in a smart contract function. How each actor works is specified in Section Network Actors. 1. Takers refer to anyone who can directly call the smart contract functions to trade tokens, such as end-users, DApps, and wallets. 2. Reserves refer to anyone who wishes to provide liquidity. They have to implement the smart contract functions defined in the reserve interface in order to be registered and have their token pairs listed. 3. Registered reserves refer to those that will be cycled through for matching taker requests. 4. Maintainers refer to anyone who has permission to access the functions for the adding/removing of reserves and token pairs, such as a DAO or the team behind the protocol implementation. 5. In all, they comprise of the network, which refers to all the actors involved in any given implementation of the protocol. The protocol implementation needs to have the following: 1. Functions for takers to check rates and execute the trades 2. Functions for the maintainers to registeremove reserves and token pairs 3. Reserve interface that defines the functions reserves needs to implement https://preview.redd.it/d2tcxc7wdcg51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=b2afde388a77054e6731772b9115ee53f09b6a4a
1.3 KYBER CORE SMART CONTRACTS
Kyber Core smart contracts is an implementation of the protocol that has major protocol functions to allow actors to join and interact with the network. For example, the Kyber Core smart contracts provide functions for the listing and delisting of reserves and trading pairs by having clear interfaces for the reserves to comply to be able to register to the network and adding support for new trading pairs. In addition, the Kyber Core smart contracts also provide a function for takers to query the best rate among all the registered reserves, and perform the trades with the corresponding rate and reserve. A trading pair consists of a quote token and any other token that the reserve wishes to support. The quote token is the token that is either traded from or to for all trades. For example, the Ethereum implementation of the Kyber protocol uses Ether as the quote token. In order to search for the best rate, all reserves supporting the requested token pair will be iterated through. Hence, the Kyber Core smart contracts need to have this search algorithm implemented. The key functions implemented in the Kyber Core Smart Contracts are listed in Figure 2 below. We will visit and explain the implementation details and security considerations of each function in the Specification Section.
1.4 HOW KYBER’S ON-CHAIN PROTOCOL WORKS?
Kyber is the liquidity infrastructure for decentralized finance. Kyber aggregates liquidity from diverse sources into a pool, which provides the best rates for takers such as DApps, Wallets, DEXs, and End users.
1.4.1 PROVIDING LIQUIDITY AS A RESERVE
Anyone can operate a Kyber Reserve to market make for profit and make their tokens available for DApps in the ecosystem. Through an open reserve architecture, individuals, token teams and professional market makers can contribute token assets to Kyber’s liquidity pool and earn from the spread in every trade. These tokens become available at the best rates across DApps that tap into the network, making them instantly more liquid and useful. MAIN RESERVE TYPES Kyber currently has over 45 reserves in its network providing liquidity. There are 3 main types of reserves that allow different liquidity contribution options to suit the unique needs of different providers. 1. Automated Price Reserves (APR) — Allows token teams and users with large token holdings to have an automated yet customized pricing system with low maintenance costs. Synthetix and Melon are examples of teams that run APRs. 2. Fed Price Reserves (FPR) — Operated by professional market makers that require custom and advanced pricing strategies tailored to their specific needs. Kyber alongside reserves such as OneBit, runs FPRs. 3. Bridge Reserves (BR) — These are specialized reserves meant to bring liquidity from other on-chain liquidity providers like Uniswap, Oasis, DutchX, and Bancor into the network.
1.5 KYBER NETWORK ROLES
There Kyber Network functions through coordination between several different roles and functions as explained below: - Users — This entity uses the Kyber Network to send and receive tokens. A user can be an individual, a merchant, and even a smart contract account. - Reserve Entities — This role is used to add liquidity to the platform through the dynamic reserve pool. Some reserve entities are internal to the Kyber Network, but others may be registered third parties. Reserve entities may be public if the public contributes to the reserves they hold, otherwise they are considered private. By allowing third parties as reserve entities the network adds diversity, which prevents monopolization and keeps exchange rates competitive. Allowing third party reserve entities also allows for the listing of less popular coins with lower volumes. - Reserve Contributors — Where reserve entities are classified as public, the reserve contributor is the entity providing reserve funds. Their incentive for doing so is a profit share from the reserve. - The Reserve Manager — Maintains the reserve, calculates exchange rates and enters them into the network. The reserve manager profits from exchange spreads set by them on their reserves. They can also benefit from increasing volume by accessing the entire Kyber Network. - The Kyber Network Operator — Currently the Kyber Network team is filling the role of the network operator, which has a function to adds/remove Reserve Entities as well as controlling the listing of tokens. Eventually, this role will revert to a proper decentralized governance.
1.6 BASIC TOKEN TRADE
A basic token trade is one that has the quote token as either the source or destination token of the trade request. The execution flow of a basic token trade is depicted in the diagram below, where a taker would like to exchange BAT tokens for ETH as an example. The trade happens in a single blockchain transaction. 1. Taker sends 1 ETH to the protocol contract, and would like to receive BAT in return. 2. Protocol contract queries the first reserve for its ETH to BAT exchange rate. 3. Reserve 1 offers an exchange rate of 1 ETH for 800 BAT. 4. Protocol contract queries the second reserve for its ETH to BAT exchange rate. 5. Reserve 2 offers an exchange rate of 1 ETH for 820 BAT. 6. This process goes on for the other reserves. After the iteration, reserve 2 is discovered to have offered the best ETH to BAT exchange rate. 7. Protocol contract sends 1 ETH to reserve 2. 8. The reserve sends 820 BAT to the taker.
1.7 TOKEN-TO-TOKEN TRADE
A token-to-token trade is one where the quote token is neither the source nor the destination token of the trade request. The exchange flow of a token to token trade is depicted in the diagram below, where a taker would like to exchange BAT tokens for DAI as an example. The trade happens in a single blockchain transaction. 1. Taker sends 50 BAT to the protocol contract, and would like to receive DAI in return. 2. Protocol contract sends 50 BAT to the reserve offering the best BAT to ETH rate. 3. Protocol contract receives 1 ETH in return. 4. Protocol contract sends 1 ETH to the reserve offering the best ETH to DAI rate. 5. Protocol contract receives 30 DAI in return. 6. Protocol contract sends 30 DAI to the user.
2.KYBER NETWORK CRYSTAL (KNC) TOKEN
Kyber Network Crystal (KNC) is an ERC-20 utility token and an integral part of Kyber Network. KNC is the first deflationary staking token where staking rewards and token burns are generated from actual network usage and growth in DeFi. The Kyber Network Crystal (KNC) is the backbone of the Kyber Network. It works to connect liquidity providers and those who need liquidity and serves three distinct purposes. The first of these is to collect transaction fees, and a portion of every fee collected is burned, which keeps KNC deflationary. Kyber Network Crystals (KNC), are named after the crystals in Star Wars used to power light sabers. The KNC also ensures the smooth operation of the reserve system in the Kyber liquidity since entities must use third-party tokens to buy the KNC that pays for their operations in the network. KNC allows token holders to play a critical role in determining the incentive system, building a wide base of stakeholders, and facilitating economic flow in the network. A small fee is charged each time a token exchange happens on the network, and KNC holders get to vote on this fee model and distribution, as well as other important decisions. Over time, as more trades are executed, additional fees will be generated for staking rewards and reserve rebates, while more KNC will be burned. - Participation rewards — KNC holders can stake KNC in the KyberDAO and vote on key parameters. Voters will earn staking rewards (in ETH) - Burning — Some of the network fees will be burned to reduce KNC supply permanently, providing long-term value accrual from decreasing supply. - Reserve incentives — KNC holders determine the portion of network fees that are used as rebates for selected liquidity providers (reserves) based on their volume performance. Finally, the KNC token is the connection between the Kyber Network and the exchanges, wallets, and dApps that leverage the liquidity network. This is a virtuous system since entities are rewarded with referral fees for directing more users to the Kyber Network, which helps increase adoption for Kyber and for the entities using the Network. And of course there will soon be a fourth and fifth uses for the KNC, which will be as a staking token used to generate passive income, as well as a governance token used to vote on key parameters of the network. The Kyber Network Crystal (KNC) was released in a September 2017 ICO at a price around $1. There were 226,000,000 KNC minted for the ICO, with 61% sold to the public. The remaining 39% are controlled 50/50 by the company and the founders/advisors, with a 1 year lockup period and 2 year vesting period. Currently, just over 180 million coins are in circulation, and the total supply has been reduced to 210.94 million after the company burned 1 millionth KNC token in May 2019 and then its second millionth KNC token just three months later. That means that while it took 15 months to burn the first million KNC, it took just 10 weeks to burn the second million KNC. That shows how rapidly adoption has been growing recently for Kyber, with July 2019 USD trading volumes on the Kyber Network nearly reaching $60 million. This volume has continued growing, and on march 13, 2020 the network experienced its highest daily trading activity of $33.7 million in a 24-hour period. Currently KNC is required by Reserve Managers to operate on the network, which ensures a minimum amount of demand for the token. Combined with future plans for burning coins, price is expected to maintain an upward bias, although it has suffered along with the broader market in 2018 and more recently during the summer of 2019. It was unfortunate in 2020 that a beginning rally was cut short by the coronavirus pandemic, although the token has stabilized as of April 2020, and there are hopes the rally could resume in the summer of 2020.
2.1 HOW ARE KNC TOKENS PRODUCED?
The native token of Kyber is called Kyber Network Crystals (KNC). All reserves are required to pay fees in KNC for the right to manage reserves. The KNC collected as fees are either burned and taken out of the total supply or awarded to integrated dapps as an incentive to help them grow.
2.2 HOW DO YOU GET HOLD OF KNC TOKENS?
Kyber Swap can be used to buy ETH directly using a credit card, which can then be used to swap for KNC. Besides Kyber itself, exchanges such as Binance, Huobi, and OKex trade KNC.
2.3 WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH KYBER?
The most direct and basic function of Kyber is for instantly swapping tokens without registering an account, which anyone can do using an Etheruem wallet such as MetaMask. Users can also create their own reserves and contribute funds to a reserve, but that process is still fairly technical one–something Kyber is working on making easier for users in the future.
2.4 THE GOAL OF KYBER THE FUTURE
The goal of Kyber in the coming years is to solidify its position as a one-stop solution for powering liquidity and token swapping on Ethereum. Kyber plans on a major protocol upgrade called Katalyst, which will create new incentives and growth opportunities for all stakeholders in their ecosystem, especially KNC holders. The upgrade will mean more use cases for KNC including to use KNC to vote on governance decisions through a decentralized organization (DAO) called the KyberDAO. With our upcoming Katalyst protocol upgrade and new KNC model, Kyber will provide even more benefits for stakeholders. For instance, reserves will no longer need to hold a KNC balance for fees, removing a major friction point, and there will be rebates for top performing reserves. KNC holders can also stake their KNC to participate in governance and receive rewards.
2.5 BUYING & STORING KNC
Those interested in buying KNC tokens can do so at a number of exchanges. Perhaps your best bet between the complete list is the likes of Coinbase Pro and Binance. The former is based in the USA whereas the latter is an offshore exchange. The trading volume is well spread out at these exchanges, which means that the liquidity is not concentrated and dependent on any one exchange. You also have decent liquidity on each of the exchange books. For example, the Binance BTC / KNC books are wide and there is decent turnover. This means easier order execution. KNC is an ERC20 token and can be stored in any wallet with ERC20 support, such as MyEtherWallet or MetaMask. One interesting alternative is the KyberSwap Android mobile app that was released in August 2019. It allows for instant swapping of tokens and has support for over 70 different altcoins. It also allows users to set price alerts and limit orders and works as a full-featured Ethereum wallet.
2.6 KYBER KATALYST UPGRADE
Kyber has announced their intention to become the de facto liquidity layer for the Decentralized Finance space, aiming to have Kyber as the single on-chain endpoint used by the majority of liquidity providers and dApp developers. In order to achieve this goal the Kyber Network team is looking to create an open ecosystem that garners trust from the decentralized finance space. They believe this is the path that will lead the majority of projects, developers, and users to choose Kyber for liquidity needs. With that in mind they have recently announced the launch of a protocol upgrade to Kyber which is being called Katalyst. The Katalyst upgrade will create a stronger ecosystem by creating strong alignments towards a common goal, while also strengthening the incentives for stakeholders to participate in the ecosystem. The primary beneficiaries of the Katalyst upgrade will be the three major Kyber stakeholders: 1. Reserve managers who provide network liquidity; 2. dApps that connect takers to Kyber; 3. KNC holders. These stakeholders can expect to see benefits as highlighted below: Reserve Managers will see two new benefits to providing liquidity for the network. The first of these benefits will be incentives for providing reserves. Once Katalyst is implemented part of the fees collected will go to the reserve managers as an incentive for providing liquidity. This mechanism is similar to rebates in traditional finance, and is expected to drive the creation of additional reserves and market making, which in turn will lead to greater liquidity and platform reach. Katalyst will also do away with the need for reserve managers to maintain a KNC balance for use as network fees. Instead fees will be automatically collected and used as incentives or burned as appropriate. This should remove a great deal of friction for reserves to connect with Kyber without affecting the competitive exchange rates that takers in the system enjoy. dApp Integrators will now be able to set their own spread, which will give them full control over their own business model. This means the current fee sharing program that shares 30% of the 0.25% fee with dApp developers will go away and developers will determine their own spread. It’s believed this will increase dApp development within Kyber as developers will now be in control of fees. KNC Holders, often thought of as the core of the Kyber Network, will be able to take advantage of a new staking mechanism that will allow them to receive a portion of network fees by staking their KNC and participating in the KyberDAO.
2.7 COMING KYBERDAO
With the implementation of the Katalyst protocol the KNC holders will be put right at the heart of Kyber. Holders of KNC tokens will now have a critical role to play in determining the future economic flow of the network, including its incentive systems. The primary way this will be achieved is through KyberDAO, a way in which on-chain and off-chain governance will align to streamline cooperation between the Kyber team, KNC holders, and market participants. The Kyber Network team has identified 3 key areas of consideration for the KyberDAO: 1. Broad representation, transparent governance and network stability 2. Strong incentives for KNC holders to maintain their stake and be highly involved in governance 3. Maximizing participation with a wide range of options for voting delegation Interaction between KNC Holders & Kyber This means KNC holders have been empowered to determine the network fee and how to allocate the fees to ensure maximum network growth. KNC holders will now have three fee allocation options to vote on: - Voting Rewards: Immediate value creation. Holders who stake and participate in the KyberDAO get their share of the fees designated for rewards. - Burning: Long term value accrual. The decreasing supply of KNC will improve the token appreciation over time and benefit those who did not participate. - Reserve Incentives:Value creation via network growth. By rewarding Kyber reserve managers based on their performance, it helps to drive greater volume, value, and network fees.
2.8 TRANSPARENCY AND STABILITY
The design of the KyberDAO is meant to allow for the greatest network stability, as well as maximum transparency and the ability to quickly recover in emergency situations. Initally the Kyber team will remain as maintainers of the KyberDAO. The system is being developed to be as verifiable as possible, while still maintaining maximum transparency regarding the role of the maintainer in the DAO. Part of this transparency means that all data and processes are stored on-chain if feasible. Voting regarding network fees and allocations will be done on-chain and will be immutable. In situations where on-chain storage or execution is not feasible there will be a set of off-chain governance processes developed to ensure all decisions are followed through on.
2.9 KNC STAKING AND DELEGATION
Staking will be a new addition and both staking and voting will be done in fixed periods of times called “epochs”. These epochs will be measured in Ethereum block times, and each KyberDAO epoch will last roughly 2 weeks. This is a relatively rapid epoch and it is beneficial in that it gives more rapid DAO conclusion and decision-making, while also conferring faster reward distribution. On the downside it means there needs to be a new voting campaign every two weeks, which requires more frequent participation from KNC stakeholders, as well as more work from the Kyber team. Delegation will be part of the protocol, allowing stakers to delegate their voting rights to third-party pools or other entities. The pools receiving the delegation rights will be free to determine their own fee structure and voting decisions. Because the pools will share in rewards, and because their voting decisions will be clearly visible on-chain, it is expected that they will continue to work to the benefit of the network.
After the September 2017 ICO, KNC settled into a trading price that hovered around $1.00 (decreasing in BTC value) until December. The token has followed the trend of most other altcoins — rising in price through December and sharply declining toward the beginning of January 2018. The KNC price fell throughout all of 2018 with one exception during April. From April 6th to April 28th, the price rose over 200 percent. This run-up coincided with a blog post outlining plans to bring Bitcoin to the Ethereum blockchain. Since then, however, the price has steadily fallen, currently resting on what looks like a $0.15 (~0.000045 BTC) floor. With the number of partners using the Kyber Network, the price may rise as they begin to fully use the network. The development team has consistently hit the milestones they’ve set out to achieve, so make note of any release announcements on the horizon.
The 0x project is the biggest competitor to Kyber Network. Both teams are attempting to enter the decentralized exchange market. The primary difference between the two is that Kyber performs the entire exchange process on-chain while 0x keeps the order book and matching off-chain. As a crypto swap exchange, the platform also competes with ShapeShift and Changelly.
• June 2020: Digifox, an all-in-one finance application by popular crypto trader and Youtuber Nicholas Merten a.k.a DataDash (340K subs), integrated Kyber to enable users to easily swap between cryptocurrencies without having to leave the application. • June 2020: Stake Capital partnered with Kyber to provide convenient KNC staking and delegation services, and also took a KNC position to participate in governance. • June 2020: Outlined the benefits of the Fed Price Reserve (FPR) for professional market makers and advanced developers. • May 2020: Kyber crossed US$1 Billion in total trading volume and 1 Million transactions, performed entirely on-chain on Ethereum. • May 2020: StakeWith.Us partnered Kyber Network as a KyberDAO Pool Master. • May 2020: 2Key, a popular blockchain referral solution using smart links, integrated Kyber’s on-chain liquidity protocol for seamless token swaps • May 2020: Blockchain game League of Kingdoms integrated Kyber to accept Token Payments for Land NFTs. • May 2020: Joined the Zcash Developer Alliance , an invite-only working group to advance Zcash development and interoperability. • May 2020: Joined the Chicago DeFi Alliance to help accelerate on-chain market making for professionals and developers. • March 2020: Set a new record of USD $33.7M in 24H fully on-chain trading volume, and $190M in 30 day on-chain trading volume. • March 2020: Integrated by Rarible, Bullionix, and Unstoppable Domains, with the KyberWidget deployed on IPFS, which allows anyone to swap tokens through Kyber without being blocked. • February 2020: Popular Ethereum blockchain game Axie Infinity integrated Kyber to accept ERC20 payments for NFT game items. • February 2020: Kyber’s protocol was integrated by Gelato Finance, Idle Finance, rTrees, Sablier, and 0x API for their liquidity needs. • January 2020: Kyber Network was found to be the most used protocol in the whole decentralized finance (DeFi) space in 2019, according to a DeFi research report by Binance. • December 2019: Switcheo integrated Kyber’s protocol for enhanced liquidity on their own DEX. • December 2019: DeFi Wallet Eidoo integrated Kyber for seamless in-wallet token swaps. • December 2019: Announced the development of the Katalyst Protocol Upgrade and new KNC token model. • July 2019: Developed the Waterloo Bridge , a Decentralized Practical Cross-chain Bridge between EOS and Ethereum, successfully demonstrating a token swap between Ethereum to EOS. • July 2019: Trust Wallet, the official Binance wallet, integrated Kyber as part of its decentralized token exchange service, allowing even more seamless in-wallet token swaps for thousands of users around the world. • May 2019: HTC, the large consumer electronics company with more than 20 years of innovation, integrated Kyber into its Zion Vault Wallet on EXODUS 1 , the first native web 3.0 blockchain phone, allowing users to easily swap between cryptocurrencies in a decentralized manner without leaving the wallet. • January 2019: Introduced the Automated Price Reserve (APR) , a capital efficient way for token teams and individuals to market make with low slippage. • January 2019: The popular Enjin Wallet, a default blockchain DApp on the Samsung S10 and S20 mobile phones, integrated Kyber to enable in-wallet token swaps. • October 2018: Kyber was a founding member of the WBTC (Wrapped Bitcoin) Initiative and DAO. • October 2018: Developed the KyberWidget for ERC20 token swaps on any website, with CoinGecko being the first major project to use it on their popular site.
Establishing a smart contract commercial scenario: Chainlink, Zk-Snarks and sharding technology work together to make the ultimate killer
This text was translated from Chinese, open following link in Chrome and translate to see all images: https://bihu.com/article/1242138347 EDIT: found an English text with pictures: https://medium.com/@rogerfeng/making-smart-contracts-work-for-business-how-chainlink-zk-snarks-sharding-finally-delivered-8f268af75ca2 Author: Feng Jie translation: Liu Sha “The highest state of technology is to integrate into the various scenes of everyday life, to fade away from high-tech outerwear and become a part of everyday life.” – Mark Weiser People in the future will not even think that smart contracts are "innovative." By that time, smart contracts would permeate every aspect of life, and people couldn't even imagine what the era of non-digital currency would look like. Later historians may divide human business history into two eras, the pre-smart contract era and the post-smart contract era. After all, digital money has brought unprecedented changes to the nature and patterns of business practices in the real world. An anonymous member of the Chainlink community once said: "Smart contracts can change the DNA of the business." Of course, like all the technological revolutions of the past, smart contracts also need to reach a "tipping point" to truly achieve large-scale applications. So we need to ask ourselves two questions:
What exactly is this so-called tipping point?
As of August 2019, have we reached this tipping point?
To reach the tipping point means unlocking the ultimate nirvana of business. Tipping point We can think about this issue from the perspective of mainstream companies. Imagine what a perfect smart contract platform should look like. What characteristics should this platform have? Or what features must be possessed? To reach the tipping point, you must establish a public chain with the following four characteristics:
In addition to the cryptocurrency, the transaction can also be settled in mainstream legal currency and comply with the regulatory requirements of financial markets such as ISO 20022.
Achieve scalability without sacrificing decentralization or security, that is, solving the "impossible triangle problem."
Connect the external data under the chain, that is, solve the "prophecy problem."
Now that we have Chainlink, zk-snarks and sharding technology, we have reached this tipping point. Next, let's explore how this ultimate nirvana is actually made. Our discussion will be mainly from the perspective of Ethereum, which is still the top smart contract platform for community size and mainstream applications. So what about the private chain? Before delving into it, I want to take the time to solve an unavoidable problem. The mainstream view has always believed that the private chain is a more suitable solution for the enterprise. Therefore, we first dialectically analyze the two advantages and two major drawbacks of the private chain. Disadvantages
Centralization leads to relatively lower security
It's not surprising that IBM and Maersk's blockchain freight alliances have a hard time finding customers who are willing to join. How can other freight companies be willing to let their biggest competitors (Maersk) verify their trading data? Only madmen dare to do this.
The staking of the horses occupy the hills:
This problem is even more serious than centralization. John Wolpert, co-founder of the IBM blockchain, wrote an excellent article called Breaking the Barriers to Realize Security: Why Companies Should Embrace the Ethereum Public Chain, which he covered in detail in the article. If every company builds its own private chain, it will lead to chaos in the mountains. Today's B2B ecosystem is very complex. Imagine the innumerable private chains of the world intertwined to form a huge "spider web." This is not only cost-effective, but also not scalable. The starting point of the blockchain is to break down barriers instead of building more barriers. "One day, one of your big buyers called you to ask if you want to join their private chain. You promised. The next day you received a call from the wholesaler to ask you the same question. Then came the supplier, freight. Business, insurance company or even bank, and each company may have several private chains! Finally you have to invest a lot of time and cost to operate dozens of blockchains every day . If there are partners to let you join them at this time The private chain, you might say "Forget it, or fax me the order!" ”—Paul Brody (Ernst & Young) “Every time you connect two private chains through a system integrator, you have to pay a lot of money .” Advantage
Scalability: With the Ethereum public chain implementing fragmentation technology, this advantage is rapidly shrinking.
Privacy protection: At this stage, the classification of public chain / private chain is actually not very accurate. The Aztec , Zether, and Nightfall protocols (both based on the zk-snarks protocol) effectively provide a "private chain model" for the Ethereum public chain, allowing it to switch between the public and private chains. Therefore, a more accurate classification should be the alliance chain and the public chain.
By 2020, the label of the public chain/private chain will gradually disappear. The public and private chains will no longer be two opposing concepts. Instead, the concept of publicly traded/private transactions and confidential contracts/open contracts is changed, and the scope of these transactions and contracts varies according to specific needs, either bilaterally or multilaterally or even publicly. All in all, the private chain has two major drawbacks compared to the public chain. Not only that, but the two major advantages of the private chain are also rapidly disappearing. “Technology will evolve over time, so there will be a variety of solutions to solve existing problems. Ultimately, the public-chain platform will have the same performance, scalability and data privacy as the private chain, while at the same time ensuring security and Decentralized." Feature 1: Privacy protection (predictive machine and public chain privacy) Enigma founder Guy Zyskind once joked in his MIT graduation thesis that smart contracts can only become commercially valuable if they become "confidential contracts." He later proposed that zk-snarks and Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) are the most promising solutions. He said nothing wrong. What is zk-snarks ? Zk-snarks is a zero-knowledge proof mechanism (ZPK). So what is the zero-knowledge proof mechanism? In short: a zero-knowledge proof mechanism allows you to prove that you own certain information without revealing the content of the information. Vitalik Buterin explained this concept in detail from a technical point of view in an article published in 2017. Hackernoon also wrote an excellent article explaining the concept in an easy-to-understand way with the example of a five-year-old child and Halloween candy. What is the trusted execution environment? The trusted execution environment lets the code run on closed hardware, and 1 ) The guarantee result cannot be tampered with 2 ) Protecting absolute privacy, even hardware running code can't get confidential information. The most well-known trusted execution environment is Intel SGX. Chainlink has established a partnership with Intel SGX after acquiring Tom Crier. Ernst & Young released the Nightfall agreement on Github on May 31, 2019. A well-known accounting firm with a history of 100 years will choose to add privacy features to the public chain instead of developing a private chain. This is a problem. Since then, the community has been actively developing on this basis, not only to improve the code, but also to develop a plug-and-play Truffle Box for those who are not good at writing code. Blockchain communities and businesses generally rarely collaborate, so these collaborations fully demonstrate the popularity of Nightfall. Prior to this, two zk-snark-based Ethereum public chain privacy protocols were introduced, namely AZTEC (Consensys) and Zether (Stanford, JPMorgan Chase). An obvious trend is slowly taking shape. In the field of oracles, Chainlink uses both zero-knowledge proof and a trusted execution environment to complement each other. Trusted execution environments guarantee data privacy, even for nodes that cannot access data (this feature is critical for bank accounts and API keys). Chainlink is still trying to implement a trusted execution environment, and nodes can access data temporarily, so authentication services are also needed. Although the credible execution environment is almost 100% foolproof, in theory, a strong shield has a spear that can penetrate it. Therefore, the team is currently trying to run zk-snarks in a trusted execution environment (Thomas Hodges mentioned this in the 2019 Trufflecon Q&A session). The combination of the two can form a very robust and complete system. The attacker must find a way to strip all the layers of an onion at the same time to make any effective attack (and it is already difficult to peel off a layer of skin). “Chainlink combines a trusted execution environment with zero-knowledge proof to build what we call a defense-in-depth system, which means they provide all the tools needed for smart contract developers, including trusted execution environments, multiple nodes, and Data sources, fine margins, reputation systems, asymmetric encryption, zero-knowledge proofs, WASM, and OTP+RNG, these features allow smart contract developers to adjust the confidentiality and cost of contracts based on specific budget and security needs. Machine, Chainlink and its four major application scenarios》 In the future, zk-snarks may be upgraded to zk-starks (a fully transparent zero-knowledge proof mechanism) that protects the system from quantum computer attacks. And the best thing about zk-starks is that it's more scalable than zk-snarks. In other words, it can better protect privacy, and the cost of gas will not increase. If you want to learn more about zk-starks, you can read a popular science article written by Adam Luciano. Feature 2: Scalability (scalability of predictive machines and public chains) To understand this problem, we can make an analogy like this: A public chain is like a large enterprise, and every employee (ie, a node) must attend each meeting (ie, confirm each transaction). Imagine how inefficient this company is! Only customers who have a lot of money (ie gas fees) can get their requests to the forefront. And this is not the most serious problem. The most serious problem is that the more employees (ie nodes) who join the company, the harder it is for the company to function properly! In the end, the company not only failed to expand linearly, but also became smaller and smaller. Although this guarantees decentralization and security to the greatest extent, the price is completely abandoning scalability. There are various temporary fire fighting solutions, but no one solution can completely solve this "impossible triangle problem." For example, EOS uses the DPOS mechanism (share authorization certification mechanism), where only 21 super nodes (many of which are well-known nodes) are responsible for verifying all transactions. Sidechains (such as Bitcoin's Lightning Network and Ethereum's lightning network) guarantee scalability and decentralization at the expense of security. So how to use the fragmentation technology to solve this problem? Let's make another analogy: In reality, there is only one company that is not too much to ask everyone to attend all meetings, that is, small start-ups (that is, private chains that limit the number of nodes). In most cases, large companies divide employees into thousands of teams (ie, shards), and each team's principal (ie, the certifier) is responsible for reporting to the senior management (ie, the main chain). If people from different teams need to collaborate (and sometimes also), then they can collaborate by cross-shard receipts. If a new employee joins the company, the team can be re-segmented (ie re-sharding). This allows for linear expansion. In fact, the process of developing a start-up to a large enterprise is surprisingly similar to the process of Ethereum 1.0 developing into Ethereum 2.0. “The Ethereum 1.0 period is that several people who are alone are trying to build a world computer; and Ethereum 2.0 will really develop into a world computer.” Vitalik Buterin said in the first piece of the workshop. Since Ethereum was not originally built on the principle of fragmentation, it takes seven steps to achieve the goal (this is a bit like the word morphing solitaire game). The first step is planned for January 3, 2020. At the same time, developers can use many other blockchain platforms designed based on the fragmentation principle. Some platforms, including Zilliqa and Quarkchain, are already compatible with Chainlink. If you want to see more in-depth technical analysis of shards, check out an article by Ramy Zhang. In the field of oracles, Chainlink has the following two characteristics: 1 ) Use Schnorr threshold signatures to quickly reach consensus in a cost-effective manner. The next version of the chain only needs 16,000 gas. 2 ) We have previously discussed the need to use trusted execution environment hardware to ensure that nodes cannot access sensitive data. Since you have hardware in your hand, you can use it to do some actual computing work, so that you can properly reduce the amount of computation on the smart contract platform. "With the SGX system (Town Crier) and zero-knowledge proof technology, the oracle can be truly reliable and confidential, so the boundaries between the oracle and the smart contract are beginning to flow... Our long-term strategy... is to let The predictor becomes the key chain of computing resources used by most smart contracts. We believe that the way to achieve this goal is to perform chain operations in the oracle to meet various computing needs, and then send the results to the smart contract."Chainlink White Paper, Section 6.3 (26 pages) Of course, this “long-term strategy” has certain risks, unless Chainlink can implement a trusted execution environment and its service provider ecosystem can achieve a qualitative leap. However, the Chainlink team's vision is absolutely forward-looking: under-chain computing is a key factor in ensuring that blockchains are not dragged down by large amounts of IoT data. The Internet of Things has dramatically increased the current state of big data. At present, most of the data is still generated on the software side, and it is not real-time data, and most of the data in the future will be real-time data generated on the sensor side. One of the big drawbacks of real-time data is that it increases storage pressure. For example, Coughlin Associates expects an unmanned car to generate 1G of data per second. This means that the same car will produce 3.6T data per hour! The only viable solution is to do real-time analysis of the data, rather than storing the data first. In the Global Cloud Index: 2016-2021 Forecast and Methodology White Paper, Cisco predicts that more than 90% of data in 2021 will be analyzed in real time without storage. That is to say, the essence of data is that it can only exist in just one instant. The nature of the blockchain is not to be modified, so the two are as incompatible as water and oil. The solution is to analyze the raw data under the chain, extract the meaningful results and send them to the blockchain. The combination of fragmentation technology and trusted execution environment forms a new computing architecture, similar to the cloud computing-fog computing-edge computing architecture. It should be noted here that it is good to improve computing power, but this is not the main purpose of the blockchain. The fundamental purpose of the blockchain is not to reduce the original cost of computing and data storage. After all, technology giants such as Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Salesforce, Tencent, Alibaba, and Dropbox have built world-class cloud services. The centralized server wins high computational efficiency (but the blockchain will greatly improve the computational efficiency through fragmentation technology, and will catch up with it one day). The value of the blockchain is to reduce the cost of building trust. Nick Szabo calls it "social scalability" (this is a relative concept to the "operational" scalability we have been talking about). Vitalik Buterin also made it clear that the meaning of smart contracts is to accept small arithmetic delay penalties in exchange for a substantial reduction in "social costs." Alex Coventry of the Chainlink team once raised the question: "We have missed many opportunities for cooperation and reciprocity because we can't confirm whether the other party will fulfill the promise?" Is there any potential for data storage projects like Siacoin and IPFS? What about decentralized computing projects like SONM and Golem? Siacoin 's core value proposition is not that its computing efficiency is higher than traditional cloud services. The cost of computing is required to split, repeat, and reassemble data. And companies are more capable of buying the latest and greatest hardware than individuals. Siacoin's core value proposition is to process data in an Airbnb-like mode, so management fees will be lower than traditional models. It also generates additional social value, such as flood control, privacy and security, and anti-censorship. The same is true of Golem and SONM. Even with the most efficient protocol, it is inevitable that a small amount of delay will be imposed and fined to coordinate the hardware of different geographical locations. Therefore, under the condition that all other conditions are equal, the centralized hardware still has the advantage of faster computing speed. However, the core value proposition of the above project is to use the Airbnb-like model to reduce management costs. We must strictly distinguish between "social scalability" and "operational scalability", and the two cannot be confused. I will explain these two concepts in detail when I discuss "Magic Bus and Lightweight Library" later. Feature 3: Compatible with legal currency Most mainstream companies do not regard cryptocurrencies as "real currencies." In addition, even if someone wants to use cryptocurrency for trading, it is very difficult to actually operate because of its high price volatility. I discussed the “price volatility problem” in detail in Chapters 8 and 9 of the previous article. These problems do not completely erase the existence value of cryptocurrencies, because cryptocurrencies also have many advantages that legal currency does not have. I am just emphasizing what we need to know more about the comfort zone of mainstream companies. Chainlink acts as a universal API connector that triggers open banking payments. Chainlink is fully compliant with ISO 20022 and has established a long-term partnership with SWIFT (it is worth mentioning that SWIFT has not been updated for a long time and hopes to be updated after the SIBOS 2019 conference). PSD2 will take effect on September 14, 2019. All banks in the EU will all comply with this new regulation by then. In other words, the bank must put all account data in the "front end" and can be called through the API. The approved third party (ie, the Chainlink node) can trigger the payment directly without the payment service provider. Although the United States and Japan have not adopted similar laws, many banks still spontaneously promote the development of open banks. Banks open APIs to third-party developers to create new revenue streams and customer experiences that ultimately increase profitability. In addition, this will allow banks to better respond to competitors in the mobile payment and financial technology sectors in an APP-centric economic model. As this open banking revolution continues, Chainlink will connect smart contracts with the world's major currencies (US dollar, euro, yen, etc.). Only one external adapter is required to connect to the authenticated API. From a programming perspective, it is relatively simple to allow everyone in the community to contribute code to the code base (and thus achieve scalability). Chainlink has released adapters for PayPal and Mister Tango (European version of PayPal). Feature 4: Data connection with the chain Chainlink has been working on solving the "prophecy problem" and successfully succeeded on the main online line on May 30, 2019. Chainlink has made many achievements in just a few months. Provable (formerly Oraclize) was successfully used on the Chainlink node and finally settled the debate about whether the predictor should be centralized or decentralized. Synthetic Ether lost 37 million Ethercoins in a hack because it did not connect to Chainlink. Fortunately, the money was finally recovered and did not cause any loss. This lesson illustrates the importance of decentralized oracles. In addition, both Oracle and Google have partnered with Chainlink to monetize their API data and create a virtuous circle to capture the market opportunities that Facebook missed. There are new nodes coming online every week, and the network activity has been very high. The Chainlink team maintains a list of certified nodes in the documentation and Twitter releases. Twitter user CryptoSponge also set up a new development for the Tableau push update Chainlink team: Regarding the importance of the current stage in the history of blockchain development, Brad Huston summed it up very brilliantly: "The biggest problem with cryptocurrencies is to build bridges between cryptocurrencies, fiat currencies and big data. Chainlink is very beautifully narrowing the distance between the three. Now it can even be said: 'The bridge has been built.'" Magic bus and lightweight library Let's summarize what we discussed earlier. The real purpose of the blockchain is to reduce the cost of building trust and achieve "social scalability." Therefore, according to this logic, the main application scenarios of platforms such as Ethereum 2.0 and Zilliqa should be in the B2B field. I quote a sentence I wrote in a previous article: “My conclusion is: If the smart contract is successful, it will also succeed in the B2B field first.” The private chain itself is self-contradictory and destined to fail. It has led to the phenomenon of occupying the hills, thus increasing the social cost, which is in opposition to B2B itself, and ultimately it is self-restraint. ” Before the emergence of fragmentation technology, even simple games (ie, etheric cats) could not be smoothly run on the public chain, let alone dealing with complex B2B contracts and even changing commercial DNA. With the sharding technology, everything is ready. Despite this, we can't use Ethereum 2.0 as an all-powerful platform. Just now we said that although it is a good thing to speed up the calculation, this is not the real purpose of Ethereum 2.0. And before we also said that due to the irreversible modification of the blockchain, it is not good to deal with a large number of fleeting real-time data of the Internet of Things. In other words, we must be soberly aware that Ethereum 2.0 will not replace traditional web 2.0. Instead, we should make better use of the real advantages of Ethereum 2.0: “There is a new concept now, that is to think of the Ethereum main network as a global bus... We use the Ethereum 2.0 main network to treat various business resources as a working group on Slack: it can be easily built and integrated. And restructuring. The SAP inventory management system in your company, the dealer's JD Edwards ERP system, and the financial technology partner's tall blockchain system can seamlessly interface, eliminating the need to develop an infrastructure specifically for each partner." - John Wolper describes his ideal "magic bus" Ethereum 2.0 should be an integration center, not a data center or computing center. It should be a library built specifically to store B2B contract terms (to be honest, even with fragmentation technology, the amount of data is large enough). We should not expect Ethereum 2.0 to be an all-powerful platform, but rather develop it into a "lightweight library." If we reorder the pyramid model just now, the architecture of the magic bus is obvious: Of course, the positional relationship in the above model is not static. With the development of 5G technology, edge computing and IoT sensors, they may bypass the cloud to directly interact (or even bypass the fog end). If the collaboration between Iotex and Chainlink is successful, then the edge can interact directly with the trusted execution environment. Time will tell if Airbnb's shared data storage and computing model can make management costs lower than the current mainstream Web 2.0 model. Time will also prove whether the market really needs anti-censorship, anti-tampering, security protection and privacy protection. Do users really care about these social values and are willing to pay for them? Do they think these are just the icing on the cake or the most fundamental value? in conclusion Whether it is the battle between web2.0 and web3.0 or the battle between cryptocurrency and legal currency, one thing is beyond doubt: We have reached the tipping point, and the era of smart contracts with commercial value has arrived. In fact, the only problem at the moment is the time issue, and the main roadblocks have been basically cleared.
When will Ethereum 2.0 finish these 7 stages and be officially released?
When will Chainlink use a trusted execution environment on a large scale? If the cooperation between Intel SGX and Town Crier fails, what alternative plans are there? Will Chainlink communicate with other blockchain teams that plan to use a trusted execution environment (such as Dawn Song's Oasis Labs)?
At present, the main technical problems in the ecosystem have been solved, and now it is only necessary to recruit a group of enthusiastic developers to do the work of “connecting the line”. Digital currency has changed commercial DNA, and the future is full of possibilities. The only thing that hinders us now is our own imagination. The future is infinitely imaginative, and the future will be the world of developers. Dapps is already overwhelming. There is no doubt that we have found the ultimate nirvana. This text was translated from Chinese, open following in Chrome and translate to see all images: https://bihu.com/article/1242138347
Daily analysis of cryptocurrencies 20191003(Market index 37 — Fear state)
https://preview.redd.it/f78u3mav3cq31.png?width=405&format=png&auto=webp&s=ec016c63f4800422148c967cbd04fa738b6041ab Asset Manager Stone Ridge Files SEC Prospectus For Bitcoin Futures Fund Another Bitcoin futures product is booting up, according to a Stone Ridge Asset Management filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. The company filed a prospectus for a cash-settled Bitcoin futures fund — dubbed the NYDIG Bitcoin Strategy Fund — with the regulator on Wednesday, Oct 2. Based in New York City, Stone Ridge has some $15 billion in assets under management, serving clientele in both the United States and China. Founded in 2012, the firm offers portfolio management and advisory services. Bithumb Looking To Build A Regulated Bitcoin Exchange In India Bithumb Global is looking to build a regulated Bitcoin exchange in India, the South Korea-based cryptocurrency exchange said. Bithumb Global will engage with Indian regulators to build the exchange, it said, even as the Supreme Court is hearing a case where Bitcoin operators have questioned a move by the Reserve Bank of India to restrict banking channels for virtual currency transactions. A government panel has also recommended a ban on cryptocurrency trade in the country. The company is looking to expand in India by partnering with local cryptocurrency exchanges, fund Indian cryptocurrency startups, and introduce new initiatives for Indian traders, said co-founder and managing director Javier Sim. US State Of Ohio Suspends Service For Paying Taxes With Bitcoin Ohio Treasurer Robert Sprague announced the immediate suspension of the OhioCrypto.com website that allows businesses to pay taxes with Bitcoin (BTC). In an Oct. 2 press release, Sprague announced that according to an internal review, approval by the Board of Deposit was required before Ohio launched the website that allowed businesses to pay taxes with digital currencies. Furthermore, the State Board of Deposit has asked Attorney General Dave Yost to further research the legalities of how the crypto portal was set up and whether BitPay, the third-party processor that powered the service, constituted a “financial transaction device.” Libra Association Publishes Roadmap; Expects 100 Partners To Run Libra Nodes The Libra Association has published its first roadmap detailing the milestones the Calibra team plans to meet prior to the mainnet launch of Libra network. For the first milestone, the Libra Association expects to bring on five partners deploying full nodes on the network. By the launch of the Libra mainnet at milestone four,, the Libra Association expects 100 partners to run Libra nodes. According to the Libra Association, “one method we use for tracking the project’s success is how many of the deployed nodes are managed by different partners.” The Libra Association notes that each Libra node will “run on a mixture of on-premises and cloud hosted infrastructure” adding that “wider diversity of infrastructure will provide more resiliency to the Libra network.”
Encrypted project calendar（October 03, 2019）
ETC/Ethereum Classic:The 2019 Ether Classic (ETC) Summit will be held in Vancouver on October 3–4ANT/Aragon:Aragon (ANT) is the AGP for the new mandatory community review period, with a deadline of October 3.
Encrypted project calendar（October 04, 2019）
KNC/Kyber Network:Kyber Network (KNC) will update the maxGasPrice parameter in the Kyber Network contract from 100 gwei to 50 gwei within 2 weeks after October 4.
Encrypted project calendar（October 05, 2019）
Ontology (ONT):Ony Ji will attend the blockchain event in Japan on October 5th and explain the practical application based on the ontology network.BNB/Binance Coin:The Binance Coin (BNB) Oasis Game Hackathon will be held on October 5th in Bangalore, India, and will be hosted by Binance Labs, Matic Network, Cocos-BCX, Celer Network, Marlin Protocol.
Encrypted project calendar（October 06, 2019）
SPND/ Spendcoin:Spendcoin (SPND) will be online on October 6th
Encrypted project calendar（October 07, 2019）
GNO/Gnosis:Gnosis (GNO) will discuss the topic “Decentralized Trading Agreement Based on Ethereum” will be held in Osaka, Japan on October 7th. Kyber and Uniswap, Gnosis and Loopring will attend and give speeches.
Encrypted project calendar（October 08, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:The 2nd Global Digital Mining Summit will be held in Frankfurt, Germany from October 8th to 10th.
Encrypted project calendar（October 09, 2019）
CENNZ/Centrality:Centrality (CENNZ) will meet in InsurTechNZ Connect — Insurance and Blockchain on October 9th in Auckland.
Encrypted project calendar（October 10, 2019）
INB/Insight Chain:The Insight Chain (INB) INB public blockchain main network will be launched on October 10.VET/Vechain:VeChain (VET) will attend the BLOCKWALKS Blockchain Europe Conference on October 10.CAPP/Cappasity:Cappasity (CAPP) Cappasity will be present at the Osaka Global Innovation Forum in Osaka (October 10–11).
Encrypted project calendar（October 11, 2019）
OKB/OKB:OKB (OKB) OKEx series of talks will be held in Istanbul on October 11th to discuss “the rise of the Turkish blockchain.”
Encrypted project calendar（October 12, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:The 2019 Global Mining Leaders Summit will be held in Chengdu, China from October 12th to 14th.
Encrypted project calendar（October 14, 2019）
BCH/Bitcoin Cash:The ChainPoint 19 conference will be held in Armenia from October 14th to 15th.
Encrypted project calendar（October 15, 2019）
RUFF/RUFF Token:Ruff will end the three-month early bird program on October 15thKAT/Kambria:Kambria (KAT) exchanges ERC20 KAT for a 10% bonus on BEP2 KAT-7BB, and the token exchange reward will end on October 15.BTC/Bitcoin:The Blockchain Technology Investment Summit (CIS) will be held in Los Angeles from October 15th to 16th.
Encrypted project calendar（October 16, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:The 2019 Blockchain Life Summit will be held in Moscow, Russia from October 16th to 17th.MIOTA/IOTA:IOTA (MIOTA) IOTA will host a community event on the theme of “Technology Problem Solving and Testing IoT Devices” at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles on October 16.ETH/Ethereum:Ethereum launches Istanbul (Istanbul) main network upgrade, this main network upgrade involves 6 code upgrades.QTUM/Qtum:Qtum (QTUM) Qtum main network hard fork is scheduled for October 16.
Encrypted project calendar（October 18, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:The SEC will give a pass on the VanEck/SolidX ETF on October 18th and make a final decisionHB/HeartBout:HeartBout (HB) will officially release the Android version of the HeartBout app on October 18.
Encrypted project calendar（October 19, 2019）
PI/PCHAIN Network:The PCHAIN (PI) backbone (Phase 5, 82 nodes, 164, 023, 802 $ PI, 7 candidates) will begin on October 19.LINK/ChainLink:Diffusion 2019 will be held in Berlin, Germany from October 19th to 20th
Encrypted project calendar（October 21, 2019）
KNC/Kyber Network:The official online hackathon of the Kyber Network (KNC) project will end on October 21st, with more than $42,000 in prize money.
After bitcoin failed near the $8,500 resistance, there was a downside correction against the US Dollar. The BTC/USD traded below the $8,400 and $8,300 levels. Moreover, there was a break below the $8,200 level. However, the 100 hourly simple moving average acted as a support and a low was formed near $8,175. Recently, the price started a fresh increase and traded above the $8,300 level. There was a break above the 50% Fib retracement level of the last decline from the $8,536 high to $8,175 low. The price climbed above the $8,350 level and tested the $8,400 resistance. It seems like the 61.8% Fib retracement level of the last decline from the $8,536 high to $8,175 low is currently acting as a resistance. If there is an upside break above $8,400, the price is likely to retest $8,500. If the bulls manage to surpass the $8,500 barrier, there are chances of more upsides. The next stop for them could be near the $8,800 level. The next key resistance area is near the $9,000 level. On the downside, there is a decent support forming near the $8,250 and $8,200 levels. Moreover, there is a new connecting bullish trend line forming with support near $8,300 on the hourly chart of the BTC/USD pair. Review previous articles:https://email@example.com Telegram： https://t.me/Lay126 Twitter：https://twitter.com/mianhuai8 Facebook：https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100022246432745 Reddi：https://www.reddit.com/useliuidaxmn LinkedIn：https://www.linkedin.com/in/liu-wei-294a12176/
Daily analysis of cryptocurrencies 20190919(Market index 31 — Fear state)
https://preview.redd.it/ohzr58jf3kn31.png?width=432&format=png&auto=webp&s=7243012b0c5417a9ed5ecab1f85e44d93ddb564f Bank Of America Joins Marco Polo Blockchain Trade Network Bank of America has joined Marco Polo, a consortium working to bring efficiencies to international trade using blockchain technology. Founded by startups R3 and TradeIX, Marco Polo is built on R3’s Corda blockchain platform. The network aims to deliver real-time connectivity, greater visibility for trading relationships and lower barriers to accessing capital. China State Council: Promoting Integration Of New Technologies Like Blockchain Tech With Transportation Industry According to Xinhua News Agency, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council recently issued an outline for transportation construction in China. In terms of smart transportation innovation, the outline proposes to promote the deep integration of new technologies such as big data, Internet, artificial intelligence, and blockchain with the transportation industry. Arab Bank Switzerland Opens Bitcoin Custody, Brokerage Services Arab Bank Switzerland has partnered with blockchain technology firm Taurus to offer Bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH) custody and brokerage services to its clients. Serge Robin, the CEO of Arab Bank Switzerland — a Swiss institution that forms part of the Jordan-headquartered Arab Bank group — said: “We firmly believe that blockchain will disrupt the financial industry as we know it and we intend to be amongst the. The Turkish Government Has Announced Plans To Establish A National Blockchain Infrastructure According to a Cointelegraph report, the Turkish government has announced plans to establish a national blockchain infrastructure to utilize distributed ledger technology (DLT) in public administration, according to the Strategy 2023 presentation provided by The Ministry of Industry and Technology on Sept. 18 in Ankara. Strategy 2023 emphasizes blockchain and DLT as priorities for the coming year. The document refers to a Startup Genome survey that marks blockchain as one of the fastest-growing tech trends, with a 101.5% increase in early-stage startup funding globally.
Encrypted project calendar（September 19, 2019）
NRG/Energi:Energi (NRG) Energi will launch a trading competition on the KuCoin platform on September 9th. By September 19th, 800 NRG will be presented to the top 470 participants.ADA/Cardano:The Cardano (ADA) project official will host the Wyoming hackathon from September 19th to 22nd.KIN/Kin:The Kin (KIN) project team will host a community gathering in Toronto on September 19.BTC/Bitcoin:The 2019 Open Core Summit will be held in San Francisco from September 19th to 20th.BSV/Bitcoin SV:The Bitcoin SV (BSV) BSV Eco Conference will be held in Hangzhou, China on September 19th. OKEX will jointly host the event as a strategic partner of BSV.NPX/NaPoleonX:NaPoleonX (NPX) Binance DEX will be online NPX at 9:30 am (UTC) on September 19.VIDY:On-line IDAX exchange and opening the GOB/BTC trading market
Encrypted project calendar（September 20, 2019）
NULS / NULS:The NULS 2.0 Beta hackathon will be held from September 20th to September 21st, 2019.AE/Aeternity:Aeternity (AE) will hold “Cosmos One” conference in Prague, Czech Republic on September 20thCOCOS/COCOS:The Cocos-BCX (COCOS) Oasis Arena hackathon will take place from September 20th to 22nd in Shanghai, China (“GO Shanghai”).RVN/Ravencoin:The Ravencoin (RVN) Ravencoin project team will host the “Ravencoin Asia 2019” party in Seoul, South Korea on September 20.GOB:Go online on the IDAX exchange and open the GOB/BTC trading market
Encrypted project calendar（September 21, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:The 6th FINWISE Global Summit Macau will be held from September 21st to 22nd. Distributed Financial Technology (DeFi) is the main topic of this conference.OKB/OKB:OKB (OKB) OKEx The Africa Cryptour series of talks in Kenya will take place on September 21 in Nairobi.ADA/Cardano:Cardano (ADA) Cardano Ambassador Marin Kramaric will host the Ada community gathering in Croatia on September 21.ZIL/Zilliqa:The Zilliqa (ZIL) Zilliqa project representative will attend the “Bitcoin and Blockchain Future” conference in London, UK on September 21st.
Encrypted project calendar（September 22, 2019）
NPXS/Pundi X:Pundi X (NPXS) PundiX Labs will officially launch the XPOS transaction at the “AkiColle” event in Tokyo on September 22.
Encrypted project calendar（September 23, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:Bakkt, the digital asset platform led by ICE, the parent company of the New York Stock Exchange and the world’s second largest trading group, will launch a bitcoin physical delivery futures contract on September 23.EOS/EOS:EOS main network is expected to upgrade version 1.8 on September 23DCDecred:Project leader Jake Yocom-Piatt of Decred (DCR) Decrex will attend the Encryption Community Party in San Francisco on September 23 and will deliver a speech.
Encrypted project calendar（September 24, 2019）
ENG/Enigma:Enigma (ENG) ENG main network token snapshot will end on September 24, the original start time is August 26.LINA (LINA):Lina Review will host the Lina network launch event in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam on September 24th and release a 10-year operational strategy.Cappasity (CAPP):Cappasity will showcase its digital signage solutions in luxury stores at the Paris Retail Week from September 24th to 26th.
Encrypted project calendar（September 25, 2019）
MIOTA/IOTA:IOTA (MIOTA) IOTA will host a community event on September 25th at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles on the theme of “Building Your Own IoT.”Quant (QNT):The Quant project will participate in a marketing conference in London from September 25th to 26th, which will focus on data technology.
Encrypted project calendar（September 26, 2019）
ADA/Cardano:The Cardano (ADA) Cardano community will host a party in Washington, DC on September 26.
Encrypted project calendar（September 27, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:Cripto Latin Fest will be held in Cordoba, Argentina from September 27th to 29th.Switcheo (SWTH):After a one-year token exchange process, the project team will officially end the SWH→SWTH token exchange process on September 27.
Encrypted project calendar（September 28, 2019）
ADA/Cardano:Cardano (ADA) Cardano (ADA) 2nd Anniversary, Cardinal Foundation, IOHK and EMURGO main members will participate in community celebrations in Plovdiv, Bulgaria on September 28.TOP Network (TOP):The TOP Network team will hold a hackathon in Prague, Czech Republic from September 28th to 29th.Horizen (ZEN):Horizen project BD Rep Vano Narimandize will discuss the current status and development of sidechain technology at the Industry 4.0 Blockchain Summit on September 28.
Encrypted project calendar（September 29, 2019）
GAME/GameCredits:GameCredits (GAME) is expected to perform hard forks on September 29th at block height 2519999
Encrypted project calendar（September 30, 2019）
INS/Insolar:Insolar (INS) will be on September 30thERD/Elrond:Elrond (ERD) will conduct main network test on September 30thNULS/NULS:The NULS team will plan to beta the ChainBOX in the third quarter.CS/Credits:Credits (CS) will exchange tokens and bug rewards in the third quarterQTUM/Qtum:Quantum Chain (QTUM) is expected to complete lightning network beta in the third quarterXEM/NEM:New World Bank (XEM) will release mobile wallet and computer wallet in the third quarterHC/HyperCash: hypercash (HC) will complete community management agreement in the third quarter
Encrypted project calendar（October 01, 2019）
HT/Huobi Token:The financial base public link jointly created by Firecoin and Nervos is expected to be open source in October.RVN/Ravencoin:Ravencoin (RVN) Ravencoin will perform a hard fork on October 1.ADA/Cardano:Cardano (ADA) plans to hold technical consensus meeting in Amsterdam on October 1stXRC/Bitcoin Rhodium:Bitcoin Rhodium (XRC) will record account balance awards on October 1stPPC/Peercoin:Peercoin (PPC) will perform Peercoin v0.8 (code tang lang) hard fork on October 1st
Encrypted project calendar（October 02, 2019）
BNB/Binance Coin:The 2019 DELTA Summit will be held in Malta from October 2nd to 4th. The DELTA Summit is Malta’s official blockchain and digital innovation campaign.CAPP/Cappasity:The Cappasity (CAPP) London Science and Technology Festival will be held from October 2nd to 3rd, when the Cappasity project will be attended by the Science and Technology Festival.
Encrypted project calendar（October 03, 2019）
ETC/Ethereum Classic:The 2019 Ether Classic (ETC) Summit will be held in Vancouver on October 3–4
How the VC cartel is Destroying ICOs (Ep. 4) Finally got to finishing part 4 of the Vagina Club Blog. This one is nice and juicy with lots of name calling, screenshots and all the things people love in crypto. Lets get into it! In this episode, we will highlight some of the scummiest VCs in Crypto and break down their bad behavior. If you haven’t read the previous episodesmake sure you check those out as well, preferably before reading this one. From 0 to Gold to Shit and all in 2 years FBG the Fintech Blockchain Group and quickly became one of the most controversial crypto management funds of Asia. FBG’s fame stems from turning $20 million into $200 million in less than a year. It was founded in early 2017 by FBG founder Shuoji Zhou, 36. Shuoji is a special guy, he studied applied math at the University of Electronic Science & Technology but never cared a lot for maths. In an interview with Forbes he said, “Friendship, I think, is the most important thing in college. I forgot all the things I studied,”. Pretty big statement especially since cryptography is a sub study of mathematics Shuoij started making his fortune with arbitrage trading in the early days of crypto. One of Zhou’s tricks was to make use of the inefficiencies and problems in the cryptocurrency ecosystem. He could often buy bitcoin on one exchange at $300 and sell it on another at, say, $301.50, pocketing a riskless $1.50 per coin. As time went on Shuoji perfected his skills to abuse the system and leech off the inherent problems of this nascent market. In early 2017 before the start of the ICO frenzy, Zhou and a few of his Chinese buddies from university joined together and raised around $20 million USD. They started to invest in promising projects like OmiseGo, Tron and MakerDao. Lets take a deeper look at their investment portfolio. ￼ https://analytics.hypernum.com/fund/fbg.capital You can find the entire list of their investments in the link above. The average total return on Investment on all projects currently is around -63% at time of publishing this blog, however, FBG has 80% of investment projects – below the ICO price in dollars, the average is much higher thanks to Zilllqa. FBG Capital Investment Strategies In part 2 of this series, we explained what the goals are for a traditional Venture capital firm. At the end of 2017 and early 2018 investing in ICOs was not about finding good projects, it was about getting into them and generating the hype around them. Name of the game, find a good project with the help of engineers and specialists to examine the technology look at good teams and then hyping the shit out of them. Most crypto funds did not care about long-term visions of a project because they can make quick easy money dumping and clueless retail investors. This is one of the main problems in crypto hyper liquidity. One could almost compare it with the boy band boom of the 90s. Find pretty boys, that can sing (at least dont sound horrible). Now generate crazy hype and cash out. In part 2 of this series, we explained the importance of price in ICO Investing. Receiving discounts and getting into hot projects was the difficult part. FBG became exceedingly good at getting into projects and also with massive discounts. They talk about valuation added services that they can provide and a bunch of other lies that usually later fall flat out. We will put the FBG Logo on your Website, is what FBG Capital told Constellation Labs when they first approached them. Labs, at the time a highly rated project fell for their deceptions and gave in to the insane demands that FBG asked for. FBG demanded 98% discount. At this point it be probably better to just give away the tokens for free They provide exchange “intros.” Totally unneeded in late 2018. The industry is small. I can walk up to CZ at a conference and pitch my project.” If you have a halfway decent token and volume, all the tier2 exchanges will list you for next to nothing and there are 100 ways to start the application for tier1 exchanges who will judge you according to their own criteria.
A three letter China Fund got a great reputation as the fund to follow in ICO 1.0 because they weren’t just investing — they were actually making sure that projects did well, by doing themarketing in-house and managing the Asia retail hype. So for a time it was a good party if you heard they were on a project. This was fun while it lasted and eventually fell apart and their reputation petered out.
FBG offers the FBG One market Making Digital. As FBG is a big trader and runs a lot of volume on some of the main exchanges in crypto they offer their services for market making. The idea is simple, you tell a project you will secure a stable secondary market by providing millions in trading volume via their market makers and in return, you need to get 100% unlocked tokens with a very high discount. They will then use those tokens lock them up in the algorithmic trading bots and provide fake volume, buy and sell orders on the exchanges.
Having such terms makes it easy to make quick money by simply dumping all those tokens on other retail investors or other funds. A perfect example of this behavior was the Uchain ICO. Currently sitting at almost 100% loss UChain was once a very hyped project with lots of potential great team and advisers. Now it’s a completely REKT ICO. UChain was told that FBG will provide maker making and professional exchange listing on one of the top exchanges in the world. The listing was a complete mess and ended up on Hotbit and and Bilaxy. The market making never started. Instead, FBG made quick returns and moved on to the next projects.
CEO Shuoji Mid this year Forbes published an article on FBG capital, in which they highlight all the aspects of “Asias Hottest Crypto Fund”. Once Shuoji Zho saw the headling he quickly shared this article with all his friends and community groups on social media without even reading it. The article highlights FBGs dubious strategies and also highlights several negative aspects like: Why did FBG buy into Tron? “We thought he was a very good marketer,” says FBG partner Richard Liu of Tron CEO Justin Sun. Sun’s 450,000-follower Twitter feed is filled with promotional messages, like a recent tweet featuring Tron’s logo on Times Square’s Nasdaq Jumbotron with the caption “#TRON hits #NASDAQ once again! We’re going to change blockchain, the internet, and the world! We’re going full speed. Don’t get left behind.” Sun has hyped Tron to a $18.9 billion peak market value, despite no meaningful revenues. (FBG claims it has given back its Tron investment.) FBG also has a reputation for getting in and out of investments quickly. “They’re flippers,” says Yubo Ruan, founder of Palo Alto-based 8 Decimal Capital, a rival crypto hedge fund. “Their reputation is pump and dump.” All in all, the article shines a very negative light on the team. Sharing this piece among other funds and ICOs was one of many problems FBG ran into in the past few months. Reselling allocations breaking contracts FBG obtained a reputation of getting discounts and selling them at a premium at higher rates to other funds, VCs and Pools. This behavior became very popular in 2018. Get allocations to sell them for more than what you had to pay, make quick risk free money. Sounds too good to be true? Thats because it is. A SAFT (Simple agreement on future Tokens) is a big pile of shit in terms of legal standpoint they barely have anything written in there, but one thing that they do clarify is that buying tokens for the explicit reason to sell them again to 3rd parties can lead to termination of the contract. ￼ Aergo proudly presents the FBG Capital logo on their homepage. However just this month they were rumored to be complianing about FBG Capital to be selling their allocation on the OTC market. We know because we were offered a FBG Allocation from 3 different sources. A week later aergo announced to the public that they will increase the amount of locked tokens. We know most broker dealers in the space and often FBG Captial are the ones that are selling their tokens. The main problem with this system, is that these VCs have direct contact with the team and are selling their allocation to the public as soon as bad news comes in. Essentially its insider trading on the OTC markets. It also causes a dilution of interest as the secondary markets buy the tokens over the counter, leaving the exchanges dry and open to easy price manipulation. General cluelessness of Token economics and decentralized systems We talked to several ICOs that were in contact with FBG Capital and other Venture Capitals in general. FBG Capital uses external academics, scientists and engineers to evaluate the technology of their projects if there the project even have anything to evaluate. In direct conversation, most of the teams of such funds show little to no understanding of token economics, decentralized systems, and distributed ledger technologies. To provide long term value, VCs need to have anything of value that they can offer. This is hard work, building new valuation models for cryptocurrencies and building real value is much harder than deceiving and using dubious tactics to generate revenue. In fact, over 50% of their income comes from marginal and day trading. Frankly there was no financial incentive to have any such understanding in the first place. It was extremely easy to make money by hustling. Hustling is their only ability.
What now? Funds are dried up, they pushed all their remaining liquid assets into various Shitcoin project early and mid this year. With no retail to dump on it on or founding teams who were in it for the pump and not the long term technology. These investments never went liquid, most of them destroyed the market and got REKT anyway. We heard from various sources that many of the biggest Crypto Funds are struggling to survive. Many are faced with the problem that the ICO Teams do not want to list on exchanges, but the funds desperately need the liquidity to pay their employees. The result is an over flooded OTC market with ICO tokens selling at seed prices. Looking hashgraph 100% unlocked for 3.5 cents, or Oasis Labs for seed price? Its all popping up in the OTC telegram channels. Others like Multicoin Capita land Polychain Capital, some of the best funds in the world have also reported losses. Galaxy Digital LP, a fund owned by Mike Novogratz has reported losses of over $175 million. Also, a total of nine funds including Alpha Protocol and Crowd Crypto Fund have decided to close down. Kyle Samani, the Cofounder of Multicoin Capital, says that new capital has slowed for even high profile funds theirs. Right now, the market has no compass. Things that worked in the past are not working — the reason being is that they worked not because of the genius of the strategy, but because retail investors had FOMO’ed in and were taking the dump. Smart forward-looking players will recognize this. You can fool some people sometimes, but you can’t fool all the people all the time Strategies that the Asian VC cartel and Chinese ICOs used to generate Fomo among Western retailers: Top Ranking on So-and-So’s Spreadsheet 5 China funds’ logos on the website Random PHD with 8 years of blockchain experience on the team They have signed a partnership agreement with (reality is they usually have a buddy that owns a local franchise) They have a 50-million user base from another company they are bringing over to use their payment token. (Stuff like this is usually debunked with any amount of real diligence — except if you are MachineZone and doing your own Reverse ICO.) And recently they started a new tactic, opening on secondary exchanges with 0.5% circulating supply and then going on top exchanges. Just to then generate last bit of fomo to dump on. This behavior is really disgusting.
Conclusion We are at a point where everybody understands that things can’t go on like this. Most people are screaming for regulations and are hailing the STO, without having any understanding of securities laws and their implementations. A few other people believe that common sense is the way to go. Self-regulations and more responsibility. The ICO Venture Cartel as we know it is running out of fuel. Their deceiving tactics are not fooling anybody anymore. If you want to know who is going to win look to the project that regular people are talking about. The ones that people can maybe invest 1 ETH into a project are worth getting excited about. The ones that show us cases that bridge over to the “real world” outside of blockchain. Those that show understanding for token economics and decentralized networks. CEO’s that talk about the inherent problems with centralized solutions in every industry in the world. People that are actually passionate about decentralized ledger technologies and spend day and night working to make this our future. In the last episode of this series we’ll highlight all the aspects investors should watch out for, to avoid getting dumped on by Crypto funds and what ICOs should watch out for when approved by such 3 letter Asian Crypto funds. Please share this and other related articles to ICO communities to help us finally get rid of the players that are parasitically leaching off the system and adding no value at all. If you liked this article please make sure to check out the episodes 1 – 4 here. Want to know more about it, join us on our Discord and Telegram channels and get into the discussion, or join our 8000 member community on our ICO DOG Investment Platform: https://icodog.io/crypto-stories/how-the-vc-cartel-is-destroying-icos-ep-4/
01-19 05:13 - 'Fireside Chat' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/LizVSLiz removed from /r/Bitcoin within 23-33min
''' I'm not trying to be a jerk but I'm going to put this down. I know everyone loves bitcoin, and so do I, I've built a business around it. I'm deeply invested, have a lot of skin in the game. Some things have come to my attention since I've started studying this, and this is how I think it's going to play out. Bitcoin Mining, is not sustainable. Each bitcoin transaction requires the power of 9 US homes for one day. So, global climate change will take place if Bitcoin takes the place of paper money. Either this or we have to find sustainable permanent free energy, which is there, I believe. That's not the point. The point is they go from mining, to proof of stake. The entity with the most money is then in charge of stamping the chain. That's going to be the government, or the richest person in the world. The point is that everything is going to be the same, except that the richest person in the world will have a transaction fee for every single transaction in the world. For a government that will mean the power of tax on every transaction. If cash is gone, that money you give to your brother for babysitting will be taxed, and at any rate the 'prover' decides. I'm just saying, this seems like a trap. I know this is not going to be a popular message. I am not stopping, but this is what's on my mind. Also, bitcoin is not anonymous, nor I don't believe is any decentralized blockchain currency. We saw this evolution. Coinbase can track up to 5 transactions on the blockchain, now. Wow, how'd they do that guys? Let's get real people, they can track every single transaction for all time because it's on a public ledger which everyone has. This is not hard. It's just 'hard'. They're going to do it, so they can get they money! They're tricking you guys right now with the bitcoin loss tax deductions. It's a trap, may as well fall into that one if you can though. But the moment everyone does it, say goodbye to your money. I'm pretty sure they have already taken control of the chains, and if you want to see, look at the ledger. Someone already has control of the chains and we are just wrapped up inside them at this point. I'm just an unpopular person I know, but hey I still care about you cannibals. If everything is on the blockchain, and someone has 'proof of stake', civil asset forfeiture will be immediate. Or, whatever they want. Whatever they want to do, they can do as long as they can take ownership of that decentralized chain. I just want to list a few outcomes and then I'll shut up. Instant and flexible taxation. Once again you will have the rate of inflation controlled unilaterally by a 'central bank' the prover. No more charge backs, so businesses and 'the new bank' won't have to deal with all that overhead. No control over your money, other than moving it from chain to chain maybe, secret chains-- Hide you're seeds all you want to but the owner of the most stake is going to decide what the chain says you have in your wallet. Don't get rid of cash, but if that happens, dangit, and it probably will happen as the bitcoin is pumped and the dollar is dumped. Expenses that the government or the power that proves could be automatically deducted from your wallet regularly, imagine a world where you really do always have health insurance, no matter what the cost. The 'unbanked' or 'untaxed', those people, man who knows. Look, this wild west of complication is just the same thing only worse. And once our hours start getting tracked at work, all your breaks tallied up and your productivity monetized on the 'irreversible blockchain', we're fucked like we've never been fucked before, by ourselves. They're building the myths right now, and we will believe them because a few of us are going to get rich from it and we will perpetuate this. But it's the most inhuman system that's ever been thought of, yet the same old shit. They're going to say the millennials want this and that, but it's a trap. The millennials are lazy, they just want to work when they feel like it. They love clocking in on their phones and working for Uber, they love paying their own insurance and spending their own mileage, it grants them the freedom to laze around and gaze at their screens, this is all bullshit. It's a trap, no more sick time, no more breaks, benefits, etc. These are things the labor movement fought hard to get, but now they're being given away, by young people who don't know what they have and do not have the slightest idea what they're getting into. Let me warn you, it's the same now as it ever has been only there are more people and the resources are more scarce. Also, and here's just one last thing. The internet of things is going to heat the surface of the earth, kill plants and interfere with our biological health. We're just not going to feel the same and it's going to cause reproductive problems in adults especially, and in children developmental issues, we don't know. It's going to cause concentrations of microwave energy at the intersections of wifi beams. 5G is just the first step, if those people are one bit right, then the internet of things will not be the oasis of leisure we all dream of. The effects of microwave radiation concentrations would gradually build up, as they fill up the spectrum in any given area, so the effects would come on as slowly as the device build up. Anyway, it doesn't really matter that much, just the same old asbestos. Let's not forget though that only one hundred years ago there was no internet and also the world wasn't a continuous parking lot. I just wanted to get this off my mind. I love Bitcoin too, granted I love it less now. Wifi is genius and the dead give away for the beautiful future we have in the electromagnetic spectrum. I want to plant a grain of salt into the dreams the media is saying we are so happy about, soon we will be middle aged and we will all know the truth whatever that may be. Until then ''' Fireside Chat Go1dfish undelete link unreddit undelete link Author: LizVSLiz
Ethereum as a Security, ICO Market Reopening in South Korea and Rat Poison: Hodler’s Digest, Apr 30-May 6
This article contained the ‘Prediction of the week’, now it’s deleted. Fortune has reported that Alexis Ohanian misspoke during the interview and meant to say that Ethereum will reach $1,500, not $15,000. https://preview.redd.it/4orh3k5vygw01.jpg?width=725&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f7ced35ba9fcb37f54fe383b00aa6d2b5a0e66ec Top Stories this week Ethereum — Security Or Not? In what could be some earth shattering news for Ethereum — the world’s second largest cryptocurrency — US regulators will apparently be discussing whether or not it should be classified as security next week on May 7. If yes — it should have registered with the SEC back in 2014. South Korea Considers Reopening ICO Market Last year, South Korea banned any new Initial Coin Offerings (ICO) from being held in the country, but a new bill introduced by South Korean lawmakers could open the ICO market back up, albeit one now strictly supervised by government regulators. The passage of the bill could signal the start of a less FUD-y crypto stance coming from the country. Goldman Sachs Opens Crypto Trading Desk Investment banking giant Goldman Sachs will be opening a crypto trading desk after being “inundated” with requests from clients desperate to get their fingers in the crypto pie. This decision means that the company has officially decided that “Bitcoin is not a fraud.” Four Car Manufacturing Giants Launch Joint Blockchain Initiative BMW, GM, Ford, Renault, along with a total of thirty participants ranging from IBM to IOTA, have partnered to launch the Mobility Open Blockchain Initiative (MOBI) that aims to make transportation “safer, greener, and more affordable.” Less Crypto Purchases With Mastercard Credit Card Lead To Drop In Quarterly Growth Mastercard’s fourth quarter growth is down by two percentage points, a drop attributed to a decrease in credit card purchases of cryptocurrencies. Mastercard’s CEO hypothesizes that uncertainty in Asia could be the reason for the crypto spending contraction. Best Quotes “[Bitcoin] is probably rat poison squared,” — Warren Buffett, billionaire investor and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway “Someone else is trading turds and you decide I can’t be left out,” — Charlie Munger, Berkshire Hathaway VP “All that it takes to make a credible idea into a fad is people just switch off their brains and stop thinking. Over 20 years in and around the banking industry — blockchain is a fad, but I have seen many fads in my career. If 10 percent of what I’ve heard in my career had come true, we would have these amazing banks that run for £1 a week,” — Martin Walker, director of the Center for Evidence-Based Management “I would not describe myself as a true believer who wakes up thinking Bitcoin will take over the world,” — Rana Yared, Goldman Sachs executive working on opening their crypto desk “All this talk of decentralization is just bulls**t […] You’re just making stuff up,” — economist Nouriel Roubini aka Dr. Doom, predictor of the 2008 financial crisis Laws And Taxes Crypto-Friendly Legislation In Belarus May Get KYC Update A March decree in Belarus, designed to bring in crypto innovation to the country with the creation of a High Tech Park (HTP) meant to rival that of the US’s Silicon Valley, may be getting an update with some more stringent KYC requirements. Local sources says that companies that want to open a crypto exchange in Belarus’s HTP will be required to provide info on their management structure and customer data and communications, which must be stored for five years. This may not be the news that will attract those anonymity-loving crypto exchanges to the country. Australian Financial Regulator Promises To Protect Its Citizens From Crypto Down under in Australia, their Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) has reported it will be “taking action” to protect consumers in the ICO space, meaning that all Australian ICOs need to confirm that they are not in fact misleading investors and engaging in unlicensed conduct, or face being halted by this government regulator. Colorado Regulators Crack Down On Two ‘Unlawful’ ICOs The Colorado Department of Regulatory Agencies announced that it is investigating two ICOs — a “LindaHealthCoin” for purchasing health insurance and a token advertised by Broad Investment as an equity token that represents shares in the company — due to a failure to provide info on the risks of crypto investments and ICOs. The two companies now need to prove why their tokens don’t fall under the Colorado Securities Act, or stop token sales. Arizona’s Crypto Tax Bill Passes With Amendment The Arizona House of Representatives has passed a bill that originally would have allowed its state’s citizens to pay their taxes with cryptocurrencies, but amendments to the bill mean that the Department of Revenue now just has to consider the possibility of alternative forms of payment. Adoption Blockchain Tech Reaches Governments, Scientists In The US, Banks In South Korea Subcommittees of the US House of Representatives will be meeting next week for a hearing on how blockchain tech could help streamline supply chain management as well as prevent the production of counterfeit goods; a major science research marketplace has unveiled plans to track and validate research data on a blockchain platform; Berkeley’s city council has voted yes on a pilot program to sell municipal bonds with blockchain tech; and South Korea’s central bank is considering blockchain and crypto as possible ways to help it achieve a “cashless society.” Australian Branch Of UNICEF Announces Crypto Mining Donation Program UNICEF Australia has hopped on the crypto wave with the innovative idea of asking for donations via the borrowing of a user’s computer processing power to mine for crypto — almost 8,000 people have donated so far. Iran Says Their Experimental Cryptocurrency Model Is Ready Iran — a country whose central bank banned banks from dealing with crypto a mere two weeks ago — has announced that their “experimental model” of a domestic cryptocurrency is now ready. It’s as of yet unclear whether this digital currency will be made available to the public, and in that case, whether the majority-government owned Post Bank, or another financial entity would be the one to issue it. JP Morgan Files Blockchain P2P Platform Patent Banking giant JP Morgan Chase has filed a patent for a peer-to-peer payments network that would use distributed ledger technology like blockchain for both intra- and inter-bank settlements (sounding a bit like RippleNet to us). The P2P platform would use blockchain to process payments in real time, not relying on a trusted third party for holding the audit trail. Mergers And Acquisitions Dubai, IBM Partner For Blockchain Business Registry Dubai, in yet another step in its 2020 Blockchain Strategy, has announced a partnership with IBM to launch a blockchain business registry. The partnership will be helped by Smart Dubai, the Dubai Silicon Oasis Authority, and Dubai’s Department of Economic Development. Analysts Quit BlackRock To Form Blockchain Project VC Fund As part of the seemingly endless exodus of Wall Street execs to the crypto sphere, three analysts at BlackRock have quit in order to found a $20 mln venture capital fund, Eterna Capital, which will focus on blockchain projects. Goldman Sachs Exec Joins Maltese Crypto Fintech Startup Yet another Goldman Sachs executive has joined a crypto startup, this time a Malta-based fintech platform for a financial marketplace allowing crypto investors to get instant cash against crypto collateral. Users will get a cash advance on their Mastercard or Visa credit cards without a bank-like credit check, and can then choose to sell their crypto whenever they feel the price is favorable. Ethiopia Partners With Cardano For Blockchain Agriculture Tech Ethiopia’s government signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with altcoin Cardano with the intent to begin using an agritech platform based on Cardano’s blockchain platform by the end of the year. Gainers and losers The end of the week has seen the crypto market mostly in the green, with BTC and ETH back over their psychological price points of $9,000 and $700 respectively. Total market cap is at around $450 bln. Top three altcoin gainers of the week: All Sports (17.44%) Elastos (9.21%) DigixDAO (6.80%) Top three altcoin losers of the week: Maker (-16.95%) Veritaseum (-14.74%) Fusion (-14.63%) For more info on crypto prices, make sure to read Cointelegraph’s market analysis. FUD Of The Week University College London Breaks Ties With IOTA Foundation In more IOTA news — not a smear campaign, just reporting facts, please believe us, IOTA twitter trolls! — University College London has cut ties with the IOTA Foundation, citing that it is “inappropriate for security researchers to be subject to threats of legal action for disclosing their results.” UCL seems to be referencing the resurfaced allegations against some specific IOTA Foundation members of not responding too well an articles critiquing the cryptocurrency last fall. Vertcoin’s Twitter Hacked, Scammers Advertise Fake BTC Giveaway In another story of overeager Twitter users succumbing to too-good-to-be-true crypto giveaways, cryptocurrency Vertcoin’s Twitter was hacked this week, with the scammers promising a possible prize of 10 BTC if you participated by sending them 0.005 BTC first. Since not everyone can change their name like “Vitalik ‘Not giving away ETH’ Buterin,” it’s better for all Twitter users to assume every crypto giveaway is fake from here on out. Director Of British Think Tank Compares Blockchain To Magic The director of a British think tank, the Center for Evidence-Based Management, told Parliament that blockchain is “pixie dust” and “magic wands.” We have no response to this magical malarkey. Bitcoin Cash Adversaries Cite Lack Of Cash, Cancel Lawsuit Plans Bitcoin Cash opponents have dropped the idea of a lawsuit against Bitcoin.com, citing a lack of cash to get the suit started. Their beef with the site is that it allegedly blurs the distinction between Bitcoin Cash — a Bitcoin fork from August 2017 — and Bitcoin, which they view as the “core” Bitcoin blockchain. Best Features Is EOS Worth The Hype? As altcoin EOS’s price has risen this month by around 70 percent, and its market cap is now more than Litecoin and Cardano combined, two crypto thinkers have weighed in as to whether or not EOS is worth “the hype.” Managing editor at Crypto Chat Matt Leibowitz thinks it isn’t — EOS: Don’t Believe The Hype — while Daniel Jeffries takes radically diametric point of view, putting EOS on a pedestal as the Goddess of the Crypto Dawn. Blockchain Could Be The Answer To The US Opioid Crisis Intel and the pharmaceutical industry come up with an innovative way to combat America’s rising opioid crisis — blockchain tech. How Cryptocurrencies Compare To Traditional Assets Bloomberg put together a comprehensive 16 month analysis of just how cryptocurrencies shape up in comparison with traditional asset classes. The main takeaway? Crypto’s future is unknown (which we already knew) but the article is full of colorful graphs and charts that tell you why we can’t predict the future. Source
The Speech of Mr. Sean He, co-founder of BIT.GAME, in Singapore
Ladies and gentlemen, Good morning/afternoon My name is Sean He and I am one of the co-founders of BIT.GAME. As we know, in 2017 the cryptocurrency and blockchain ecosystem experienced an explosive growth. Bitcoin, ETH, Ripple, Litecoin, etc., value has increased several times over the past year. Looking back in history, the Internet ecosystem also made a great development before the 2000s. After the bursting bubble, many companies broke down and disappeared. Now a new problem has arisen: what kind of companies will survive and become the giants in this industry? These will include industries such as SE(search engine)，e-business and gaming. Google, facebook, Apple, Tencent, and Netease, all have gained huge profits from the gaming industry. In my opinion, the next true blockchain breakthrough will be born in blockchain game. I am not sure if you all have heard of a popular movie that was recently released named “Ready Player One” directed by Steven Spielberg. I myself have watched it3 times. The first time I went to cinema was with my wife/girlfriend/son. My first impression was WOW，the huge screen filled with virtual reality game. I couldn’t help but to think that it would be the future of gaming. A few days later, I watched Ready Player One again with my classmates, but this time I had three questions: The first question was, Wade Watts, the heroand top player in OASIS, seem to be the best of the best but in reality,was living in the slums of Washington. The second question was, although OASIS builta huge world，the founder still hasa red button which is capable of destroying the whole game world. The third one was, how did one person build such an incredible game. Halliday?Or by a company? Then I was suddenly enlightened, blockchain game would solve all these problems. For my third time, I took my colleagues to watch this film Well, it is not only a fictional story, but also a perspective vision. For all we know, if there is no Mt.Gox, Huobi, Binance, our cryptocurrency could not possibly increase so rapidly. Only with more circulation comes more value. The exchange is the core of cryptocurrency. If blockchain game plans to have a rapid growth, there must be an exchange which can serve for it. （SMILE）BIT.GAME will be the exchange. BIT.GAME is the world’s first blockchain game exchange. And we are an exchange which will grow with our customer, game players and traders. BIT.GAME has POC, short for Proof of Contribution, which is a mining pool for all game players and traders having a double buy-back program. Firstly, we will distribute 50% of exchange profits for buy-back and destroy 50% of our token BGX (which means BIT.GAME EXCHANGE); Secondly, we will use 30% of the exchange profits to buy-back, in order to restoremining poolconsistently. To support our exchange, BIT.GAME serves game developers with BIT.GAME solution. For some data-mapping blockchain games, we offer an off-chain circulation solution. With the IOU method (short for I OWN YOU), exchanges and game record transactions will be held in centralized servers. This solution offers a direct connection to help players to trade tokens from game to exchange more safely and quickly, vice versa. To help game developers issue game assets into single public blockchain or multi-blockchains, we offer them our solutions. Beside solutions, we are also building a platform to incubate blockchain games. In January 2018, Vitalik Buterin mentioned a DAICO (short for Decentralized Anonymous Initial Coin Offering) instead of an ICO, for better investment risk control. Well, for some blockchain programs, it needs one year or more to realize DAICO. DAICO contains more uncertain factors for these programs making it not suitable for them in the long term. In the meantime, just like blockchain game, be known to all, the gaming industry is far more mature than blockchain 3 to 6 months is enough time to develop a stable game, making it more suitable for DAICO. That being said, we are proud to announce the BIT.GAME platform is basedonDAICO. (Now I want some applause ) Beyond a centralized exchange, we still plan to develop an AI based on a Decentralized exchange with Matrix AI Network. First of all, we will develop an Integrate Wallet with cross-chain, thus every wallet could be visible onto chain. With AI technology of Matrix, we offer users a larger transaction loop and lower transaction cost. twitter https://twitter.com/BitGameEN Github https://github.com/BitGameEN facebook https://www.facebook.com/BitGameExchange/ youtube https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCUD1VIVdyk0GGDmlUv0EqeA telegram https://t.me/BIT\_GAME\_CHANNEL
Bitcoin investors angry after BitOasis disables transfers BitOasis stops support for transfers from 3 major banks Published: January 10, 2018 17:38 Siddesh Suresh Mayenkar, Senior Reporter Bitcoin’s hashrate climbed to an all-time high (ATH) this week touching 166 exahash per second (EH/s) on October 14. Meanwhile, despite the recent price rise and hashrate ATH on Wednesday, only ... Bitcoin is a distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Bitcoins are issued and managed without any central authority whatsoever: there is no government, company, or bank in charge of Bitcoin. You might be interested in Bitcoin if you like cryptography, distributed peer-to-peer systems, or economics. A large percentage of Bitcoin enthusiasts are libertarians, though people of all ... The United States has finally joined the bandwagon of countries testing a central bank digital currency (CBDC), Thursday reports revealed. Governor Lael Brainard said during a virtual technology event yesterday that the US Federal Reserve, in collaboration with research teams from Boston Fed and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), is conducting experiments with a hypothetical digital ... Dubai-based startup BitOasis has announced an expansion of its bitcoin wallet and exchange platform. ... First Mover: As Central Banks Print $1.4B an Hour, Bitcoiners Bet on Federal Reserve ...
BITCOIN ERREICHT LOCKER $40,000 USD (AUCH DANK FACEBOOK´S LIBRA COIN)
It is the first decentralized peer-to-peer payment network that is powered by its users with no central authority or middlemen. From a user perspective, Bitcoin is pretty much like cash for the ... Review Buy Sell Bitcoins INR Bank Transfer Full Information Help HIndi Video - Duration: 16:39. Internet Income l इंटरनेट इनकम 8,265 views 16:39 This bitcoin animation tells you the basics of bitcoin and why we think it's such an important innovation! Our address: 13Aa59gNWGHgrbGo1SyUpeUPA5c35SEY6a Tr... Why I'm buying this crypto and not just bitcoin - Dominic Frisby, the author of the book "Bitcoin, the future of money?" shares the details in this exclusive interview with Alessio Rastani. See how BitOasis uses Multisig as a service in production.